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  • 【期刊】 Fluoride toxicity effects in onion (Allium cepa L

    摘要:A pot experiment was carried out under controlled condition to investigate the accumulation, uptake and toxicity effects of fluoride (F) in onion (Allium cepa L.) grown on the soil contaminated by inorganic fluoride (NaF). Six different levels of soil contamination were used by adding 0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg NaF kg−1 to the soil. The F concentration in shoot, bulb and root varied between 16.3 and 109.1 mg F kg−1, 15.8 and 54.3 mg F kg−1 and 18.6 and 151.6 mg F kg−1, respectively. The visible symptoms of F toxicity in terms of tip burning and death of the plant was noticed in highly contaminated soils (>400 mg NaF kg−1 soil). The phyto-toxic threshold limit (LC50) in onion shoot was found to be 55 mg F kg−1, beyond which the biomass yield decreased by 50%. It was also inferred from the study that there is a partitioning of F in onion, with more accumulation in roots and shoots than in bulbs. The order of retention of fluoride in onion found to be roots > shoot > bulb.
  • 【期刊】 Sensitivity of Allium cepa and Vicia faba towards cadmium toxicity

    刊名:Journal of soil science and plant nutrition 作者:Arya S.K ; Mukherjee A 年份:2014
    摘要:
  • 【期刊】 Toxicity evaluation of gold nanoparticles using an Allium cepa bioassay

    刊名:RSC Adv. 作者:Rajeshwari, A. ; Suresh, S. ; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan ; Mukherjee, Amitava 机构:Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University,Vellore 632014,India;Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University,Vellore 632014,India;Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University,Vellore 632014,India;Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University,Vellore 632014,India; ; Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University,Vellore 632014,India;Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University,Vellore 632014,India;Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University,Vellore 632014,India;Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University,Vellore 632014,India; 年份:2016
    摘要:

    The progressive increase in the usage of gold nanoparticles (NPs) in industrial and commercial products leads to the potential release of nanoparticles into the environment, which could cause adverse effects on living systems. In the present work, the size- and dose-dependent cytogenetic effects of gold NPs towards a plant system were evaluated for the first time by a simple and cost-effective Allium cepa (A. cepa) bioassay. Citrate-capped gold NPs of three different sizes, 15 (Au15), 30 (Au30), and 40 (Au40) nm, were synthesized by a citrate reduction method. The mean hydrodynamic diameter and morphology of as-synthesized gold NPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Several chromosomal aberrations were observed under an optical microscope upon the exposure of A. cepa root tip cells with 0.1, 1, and 10 μg mL−1 of Au15, Au30, and Au40. The mitotic indices in treated root tips were directly proportional to the NP concentration and inversely related to their size. The vehicle control (citrate) had no impact on the mitotic index. Furthermore, the effects of gold NPs on the A. cepa root tip were confirmed by analyzing the generation of various reactive oxidant species (hydroxyl, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide), which possibly led to lipid peroxidation in the system.



  • 【期刊】 Fluoride toxicity effects in onion (Allium cepa L.) grown in contaminated soils

    作者:S.K. Jha ; A.K. Nayak ; Y.K. Sharma 年份:2009
    摘要:http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0045653509003609
  • 【期刊】 Allium cepa as a biomonitor of ochratoxin A toxicity and genotoxicity

    摘要:http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1438-8677.2010.00337.x
  • 【期刊】 Efficiency of rice husk ash to adsorb chromium(VI) using the Allium cepa toxicity test

    刊名:Environmental Science and Pollution Research 作者:Kieling, Amanda Gonçalves ; Mendel, Tatiana ; Caetano, Marcelo Oliveira 年份:2018
    摘要:
  • 【期刊】 Monitoring the natural attenuation of a sewage sludge toxicity using the Allium cepa test

    刊名:Ecological Indicators 作者:Mazzeo, Dania Elisa Christofoletti ; Fernandes, Thaís Cristina Casimiro ; Levy, Carlos Emílio ; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia ; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida 关键词:Solid waste ; Waste management ; Micronucleus ; Chromosomal aberration ; Genotoxicity ; Cytotoxicity 机构:Department of Biology, Institute of Biosciences, UNESP—Univ Estadual Paulista, Av. 24-A, 1515, 13506-900 Rio Claro, SP, Brazil;Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas—UNICAMP, Rua Alexander Fleming, 105, 13081-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil; ; Department of Biology, Institute of Biosciences, UNESP—Univ Estadual Paulista, Av. 24-A, 1515, 13506-900 Rio Claro, SP, Brazil;Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas—UNICAMP, Rua Alexander Fleming, 105, 13081-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil; 年份:2015
    摘要:

    Highlights

    Detoxification of a domestic sewage sludge by means of monitored natural attenuation.

    Assessment of the toxic effects of sewage sludge applying the Allium cepa test.

    Sludge/soil associations showed no toxicity after 12 months of natural attenuation.

    The studied raw sludge induced toxicity, even after 12 months of natural attenuation.

    Before the use of SS in agriculture, an evaluation of its toxicity must be performed.

    Abstract

    Appropriate final disposal of sewage sludge (SS) generated by wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) has been considered a serious environmental problem, but also a viable alternative to be applied in agriculture, once SS is rich in organic matter and nutrients. However, SS can be a source of contamination of several toxic agents. Therefore, its use in agriculture requires special care to avoid possible damage to the environment and exposed organisms. Detoxification of toxic wastes can be performed using the monitored natural attenuation, which involves biological, physical and chemical processes that frequently occur in the environment. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of decontaminating SS after different periods of monitored natural attenuation. To this end, samples of SS and associations of soil/SS with proportions of 10, 25 and 50% SS were buried for 0, 2, 6 and 12 months in holes prepared in a place free of contamination. Allium cepa was used as an indicator to assess the efficiency of the natural attenuation process. According to chemical analysis, the SS samples presented a high concentration of m- and p-cresol, especially for samples analyzed after 0 or 2 months of natural attenuation. The microorganisms present in the SS belonged to 17 different genera of bacteria, which varied in the microbial composition among samples. Both, raw SS and aqueous SS extracts induced DNA damage in A. cepa, even when associated with soil. However, this effect was observed to decline during the attenuation period, although significant effects were detected for the highest tested concentration (100% SS) even at the end of this process. These results thus indicated the necessity of applying a stabilization process associating SS and soil for a period of at least 12 months and showed that the studied raw SS is not a viable material for use as a soil reconditioner, even after natural attenuation. A. cepa test proved to be a useful tool to assess the efficiency of SS detoxification process. Therefore, we suggest that the application of SS in agriculture should be approached with caution and that the SS must be previously submitted to methodologies that evaluate its toxic potential.

  • 【期刊】 Common onion (Allium cepa) extract reverses cadmium-induced organ toxicity and dyslipidaemia via redox alteration in rats

    摘要:Background: Cadmium (Cd) remains an important environmental pollutant of public health concern as it causes organ toxicity, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the roles of common foods such as onion (Allium cepa) need further clarification. The aims of this study were to clarify whether or not Cd-induced organ dysfunction was associated with blood protein, lipid and lipid peroxidation and the effects of onion extract AcE in a rat model. Methods: Control and Cd-treated rats were maintained on control diet, while AcE+Cd-treated rats were also orally administered AcE (1 ml/100 g body weight). Cd-treated and AcE+Cd-treated rats also received cadmium as CdSO4 (1.5 ml/kg body weight of 0.3 mg/L of CdSO4) via drinking water. Results: It was found that Cd significantly increased total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, serum albumin, and reduced HDL-cholesterol, total plasma protein, and plasma testosterone. Administration of AcE restored the liver and kidney toxicities and blood protein and lipid profiles. Moreover, AcE improved Cd-induced decrease in urinary volume and renal clearance, and also protected against Cd-induced oxidative stress by normalizing redox status. However, AcE did not affect Cd-induced altered plasma testosterone. Conclusion: Our study suggests that Cd-induced CVD was associated with altered blood dysproteinemia, dyslipidaemia, and oxidative stress. It also provided the first evidence of the therapeutic efficacy of AcE against atherosclerotic conditions and organ toxicity in Cd-intoxicated rats via a mechanism independent of the circulating testosterone level.
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